Friday, September 17, 2021

Despotism

 


Despotism (Greek: Δεσποτισμός, despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot; but (as in an autocracy) societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic.

Colloquially, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who use their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term often applies to a head of state or government. In this sense, it is similar to the pejorative connotations that are associated with the terms tyrant and dictator

Etymology
The English dictionary defines despotism as "the rule of a despot; the exercise of absolute authority."
The root despot comes from the Greek word despotes, which means "master" or "one with power." The term has been used to describe many rulers and governments throughout history. It connoted the absolute authority and power exercised by the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, signified nobility in Byzantine courts, designated the rulers of Byzantine vassal states, and acted as a title for Byzantine Emperors. In this and other Greek or Greek influenced contexts, the term was used as an honorific rather than as a pejorative.
Due to its reflexive connotation throughout history, the word despot cannot be objectively defined. While despot is closely related to other Greek words like basileus and autokrator, these connotations have also been used to describe a variety of rulers and governments throughout history, such as local chieftains, simple rulers, kings, and emperors.

Ancient Greece and oriental despotism
Of all the ancient Greeks, Aristotle was perhaps the most influential promoter of the concept of oriental despotism. He passed this ideology to his student, Alexander the Great, who conquered the Achaemenid Empire, which at the time was ruled by the despotic Darius III, the last king of the Achaemenid dynasty. Aristotle asserted that oriental despotism was not based on force, but on consent. Hence, fear could not be said to be its motivating force, but rather the servile nature of those enslaved, which would feed upon the power of the despot master. Within ancient Greek society, every Greek man was free and capable of holding office; both able to rule and be ruled. In contrast, among the barbarians, all were slaves by nature. Another difference Aristotle espoused was based on climates. He observed that the peoples of cold countries, especially those of Europe, were full of spirit but deficient in skill and intelligence, and that the peoples of Asia, although endowed with skill and intelligence, were deficient in spirit and hence were subjected to slavery. Possessing both spirit and intelligence, the Greeks were free to govern all other peoples.
For the historian Herodotus, it was the way of the Orient to be ruled by autocrats and, even though Oriental, the character faults of despots were no more pronounced than the ordinary man's, though given to much greater opportunity for indulgence. The story of Croesus of Lydia exemplifies this. Leading up to Alexander's expansion into Asia, most Greeks were repelled by the Oriental notion of a sun-king, and the divine law that Oriental societies accepted. Herodotus's version of history advocated a society where men became free when they consented lawfully to the social contract of their respective city-state.
Edward Gibbon suggested that the increasing use of Oriental-style despotism by the Roman emperors was a major factor in the fall of the Roman Empire, particularly from the reign of Elagabalus:
As the attention of the new emperor was diverted by the most trifling amusements, he wasted many months in his luxurious progress from Syria to Italy, passed at Nicomedia his first winter after his victory, and deferred till the ensuing summer his triumphal entry into the capital. A faithful picture, however, which preceded his arrival, and was placed by his immediate order over the altar of Victory in the senate-house, conveyed to the Romans the just but unworthy resemblance of his person and manners. He was drawn in his sacerdotal robes of silk and gold, after the loose flowing fashion of the Medes and Phoenicians; his head was covered with a lofty tiara, his numerous collars and bracelets were adorned with gems of an inestimable value. His eyebrows were tinged with black, and his cheeks painted with an artificial red and white. The grave senators confessed with a sigh, that, after having long experienced the stern tyranny of their own countrymen, Rome was at length humbled beneath the effeminate luxury of Oriental despotism. (The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Book One, Chapter Six)

History
In its classical form, despotism is a state in which a single individual (the despot) holds all the power and authority embodying the state, and everyone else is a subsidiary person. This form of despotism was common in the first forms of statehood and civilization; the Pharaoh of Egypt is an exemplary figure of the classical despot.The word itself seems to have been coined by the opponents of Louis XIV of France in the 1690s, who applied the term despotisme to describe their monarch's somewhat free exercise of power. The word is ultimately Greek in origin, and in ancient Greek usage, a despot (despótès) was technically a master who ruled in a household over those who were slaves or servants by nature.
The term now implies tyrannical rule. Despotism can refer to any absolutist or dictatorial regime or leader that uses their power in a cruel manner.
However, in enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism), which came to prominence in 18th century Europe, absolute monarchs used their authority to institute a number of reforms in the political systems and societies of their countries. This movement was quite probably triggered by the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment philosopher Montesquieu believed that despotism was an appropriate government for large states. Likewise, he believed that republics were suitable for small states and that monarchies were ideal for moderate-sized states.
Although the word has a pejorative meaning nowadays, it was once a legitimate title of office in the Byzantine Empire. Just as the word Byzantine is often used in a pejorative way, so the word despot now has equally negative connotations. In fact, Despot was an Imperial title, first used under Manuel I Komnenos (1143–1180) who created it for his appointed heir Alexius-Béla. According to Gyula Moravcsik, this title was a simple translation of Béla's Hungarian title úr, but other historians believe it comes from the ancient Greek despotes (literally, the master). In the Orthodox Liturgy, if celebrated in Greek, the priest is addressed by the deacon as Despot even today.
It was typically bestowed on sons-in-law and later sons of the Emperor and, beginning in the 13th century, it was bestowed to foreign princes. The Despot wore elaborate costumes similar to the Emperor's and had many privileges. Despots ruled over parts of the empire called Despotates.
The United States Declaration of Independence accused King George III of "a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evincing a design to reduce people under absolute Despotism".

Contrast with absolute monarchy
According to Montesquieu, the difference between absolute monarchy and despotism is that in the case of the monarchy, a single person governs with absolute power by fixed and established laws, whereas a despot governs by his or her own will and caprice.


Tuesday, September 14, 2021

Money

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value and sometimes, a standard of deferred payment. Any item or verifiable record that fulfils these functions can be considered as money.

Money is historically an emergent market phenomenon establishing a commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money. Fiat money, like any check or note of debt, is without use value as a physical commodity. It derives its value by being declared by a government to be legal tender; that is, it must be accepted as a form of payment within the boundaries of the country, for "all debts, public and private". Counterfeit money can cause good money to lose its value.

The money supply of a country consists of currency (banknotes and coins) and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money (the balances held in checking accounts, savings accounts, and other types of bank accounts). Bank money, which consists only of records (mostly computerized in modern banking), forms by far the largest part of broad money in developed countries.

Etymology

The word money derives from the Latin word moneta with the meaning "coin" via French monnaie. The Latin word is believed to originate from a temple of Juno, on Capitoline, one of Rome's seven hills. In the ancient world, Juno was often associated with money. The temple of Juno Moneta at Rome was the place where the mint of Ancient Rome was located. The name "Juno" may have derived from the Etruscan goddess Uni (which means "the one", "unique", "unit", "union", "united") and "Moneta" either from the Latin word "monere" (remind, warn, or instruct) or the Greek word "moneres" (alone, unique).In the Western world a prevalent term for coin-money has been specie, stemming from Latin in specie, meaning 'in kind'.

History

The use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago, though there is no evidence of a society or economy that relied primarily on barter. Instead, non-monetary societies operated largely along the principles of gift economy and debt. When barter did in fact occur, it was usually between either complete strangers or potential enemies. Many cultures around the world eventually developed the use of commodity money. The Mesopotamian shekel was a unit of weight, and relied on the mass of something like 160 grains of barley. The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. Societies in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia used shell money – often, the shells of the cowry (Cypraea moneta L. or C. annulus L.). According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins. It is thought by modern scholars that these first stamped coins were minted around 650 to 600 BC.

The system of commodity money eventually evolved into a system of representative money.[citation needed] This occurred because gold and silver merchants or banks would issue receipts to their depositors – redeemable for the commodity money deposited. Eventually, these receipts became generally accepted as a means of payment and were used as money. Paper money or banknotes were first used in China during the Song dynasty. These banknotes, known as "jiaozi", evolved from promissory notes that had been used since the 7th century. However, they did not displace commodity money and were used alongside coins. In the 13th century, paper money became known in Europe through the accounts of travellers, such as Marco Polo and William of Rubruck. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country." Banknotes were first issued in Europe by Stockholms Banco in 1661 and were again also used alongside coins. The gold standard, a monetary system where the medium of exchange are paper notes that are convertible into pre-set, fixed quantities of gold, replaced the use of gold coins as currency in the 17th–19th centuries in Europe. These gold standard notes were made legal tender, and redemption into gold coins was discouraged. By the beginning of the 20th century, almost all countries had adopted the gold standard, backing their legal tender notes with fixed amounts of gold.After World War II and the Bretton Woods Conference, most countries adopted fiat currencies that were fixed to the U.S. dollar. The U.S. dollar was in turn fixed to gold. In 1971 the U.S. government suspended the convertibility of the U.S. dollar to gold. After this many countries de-pegged their currencies from the U.S. dollar, and most of the world's currencies became unbacked by anything except the governments' fiat of legal tender and the ability to convert the money into goods via payment. According to proponents of modern money theory, fiat money is also backed by taxes. By imposing taxes, states create demand for the currency they issue.

Functions

In Money and the Mechanism of Exchange (1875), William Stanley Jevons famously analyzed money in terms of four functions: a medium of exchange, a common measure of value (or unit of account), a standard of value (or standard of deferred payment), and a store of value. By 1919, Jevons's four functions of money were summarized in the couplet:

Money's a matter of functions four,

A Medium, a Measure, a Standard, a Store.

This couplet would later become widely popular in macroeconomics textbooks. Most modern textbooks now list only three functions, that of medium of exchange, unit of account, and store of value, not considering a standard of deferred payment as a distinguished function, but rather subsuming it in the others.

There have been many historical disputes regarding the combination of money's functions, some arguing that they need more separation and that a single unit is insufficient to deal with them all. One of these arguments is that the role of money as a medium of exchange conflicts with its role as a store of value: its role as a store of value requires holding it without spending, whereas its role as a medium of exchange requires it to circulate. Others argue that storing of value is just deferral of the exchange, but does not diminish the fact that money is a medium of exchange that can be transported both across space and time. The term "financial capital" is a more general and inclusive term for all liquid instruments, whether or not they are a uniformly recognized tender.

Medium of exchange

When money is used to intermediate the exchange of goods and services, it is performing a function as a medium of exchange. It thereby avoids the inefficiencies of a barter system, such as the inability to permanently ensure "coincidence of wants". For example, between two parties in a barter system, one party may not have or make the item that the other wants, indicating the non-existence of the coincidence of wants. Having a medium of exchange can alleviate this issue because the former can have the freedom to spend time on other items, instead of being burdened to only serve the needs of the latter. Meanwhile, the latter can use the medium of exchange to seek for a party that can provide them with the item they want.

Measure of value

A unit of account (in economics) is a standard numerical monetary unit of measurement of the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. Also known as a "measure" or "standard" of relative worth and deferred payment, a unit of account is a necessary prerequisite for the formulation of commercial agreements that involve debt. Money acts as a standard measure and a common denomination of trade. It is thus a basis for quoting and bargaining of prices. It is necessary for developing efficient accounting systems.

Standard of deferred payment

While standard of deferred payment is distinguished by some texts, particularly older ones, other texts subsume this under other functions.  A "standard of deferred payment" is an accepted way to settle a debt – a unit in which debts are denominated, and the status of money as legal tender, in those jurisdictions which have this concept, states that it may function for the discharge of debts. When debts are denominated in money, the real value of debts may change due to inflation and deflation, and for sovereign and international debts via debasement and devaluation.

Store of value

To act as a store of value, money must be able to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved – and be predictably usable as a medium of exchange when it is retrieved. The value of the money must also remain stable over time. Some have argued that inflation, by reducing the value of money, diminishes the ability of the money to function as a store of value.

Money supply

In economics, money is any financial instrument that can fulfill the functions of money. These financial instruments together are collectively referred to as the money supply of an economy. In other words, the money supply is the number of financial instruments within a specific economy available for purchasing goods or services. Since the money supply consists of various financial instruments (usually currency, demand deposits, and various other types of deposits), the amount of money in an economy is measured by adding together these financial instruments creating a monetary aggregate.

Modern monetary theory distinguishes among different ways to measure the stock of money or money supply, reflected in different types of monetary aggregates, using a categorization system that focuses on the liquidity of the financial instrument used as money. The most commonly used monetary aggregates (or types of money) are conventionally designated M1, M2, and M3. These are successively larger aggregate categories: M1 is currency (coins and bills) plus demand deposits (such as checking accounts); M2 is M1 plus savings accounts and time deposits under $100,000; M3 is M2 plus larger time deposits and similar institutional accounts. M1 includes only the most liquid financial instruments, and M3 relatively illiquid instruments. The precise definition of M1, M2, etc. may be different in different countries.

Another measure of money, M0, is also used; unlike the other measures, it does not represent actual purchasing power by firms and households in the economy. M0 is base money, or the amount of money actually issued by the central bank of a country. It is measured as currency plus deposits of banks and other institutions at the central bank. M0 is also the only money that can satisfy the reserve requirements of commercial banks.

Creation of money

In current economic systems, money is created by two procedures: Legal tender, or narrow money (M0) is the cash created by a Central Bank by minting coins and printing banknotes. Bank money, or broad money (M1/M2) is the money created by private banks through the recording of loans as deposits of borrowing clients, with partial support indicated by the cash ratio. Currently, bank money is created as electronic money. In most countries, the majority of money is mostly created as M1/M2 by commercial banks making loans. Contrary to some popular misconceptions, banks do not act simply as intermediaries, lending out deposits that savers place with them, and do not depend on central bank money (M0) to create new loans and deposits.

Market liquidity

"Market liquidity" describes how easily an item can be traded for another item, or into the common currency within an economy. Money is the most liquid asset because it is universally recognized and accepted as a common currency. In this way, money gives consumers the freedom to trade goods and services easily without having to barter. Liquid financial instruments are easily tradable and have low transaction costs. There should be no (or minimal) spread between the prices to buy and sell the instrument being used as money.


 

Monday, September 13, 2021

Electronic cigarette

An electronic cigarette is an electronic device that simulates tobacco smoking. It consists of an atomizer, a power source such as a battery, and a container such as a cartridge or tank. Instead of smoke, the user inhales vapor. As such, using an e-cigarette is often called "vaping".The atomizer is a heating element that atomizes a liquid solution called e-liquid. E-cigarettes are activated by taking a puff or pressing a button. Some look like traditional cigarettes, and most versions are reusable.

E-cigarettes create an aerosol, often called vapor, made of particulate matter. The vapor typically contains propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, flavors, and traces of nitrosami nes,other toxicants, carcinogens, heavy metals, and metal nanoparticles. Its exact composition varies, and depends on several things including user behavior.

The health effects of vaping are not clear but vaping is likely less harmful than smoking tobacco. E-cigarette vapor contains fewer toxins, in lower amounts, than cigarette smoke. E-cigarette vapor does also contain harmful chemicals not found in tobacco smoke. The World Health Organization's position is that it is hard to say if vaping is safer than smoking and it is best to not use nicotine at all.

Nicotine is harmful and highly addictive. E-cigarettes can lead to tobacco smoking, and can be more addictive than tobacco. For people trying to quit smoking with medical help, e-cigarettes have a higher quit rate than normal nicotine replacement therapy. For most use, e-cigarettes do not raise quit rates.

An electronic cigarette consists of an atomizer, a power source such as a battery, and a container for the e-liquid such as a cartridge or tank.

E-cigarettes have evolved over time, and the different designs are classified in generations. First-generation e-cigarettes, which tend to look like traditional cigarettes, are called "cigalikes". Second-generation devices are larger and look less like traditional cigarettes. Third-generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices. The fourth-generation includes sub-ohm tanks (meaning that they have electrical resistance of less than 1 ohm) and temperature control devices.There are also pod mod devices that use protonated nicotine, rather than free-base nicotine found in earlier generations, providing higher nicotine yields through the production of aerosolized protonated nicotine.

E-liquid is the mixture used in vapor products such as e-cigarettes. E-liquid formulations vary widely. A typical e-liquid comprises propylene glycol and glycerin (95%), and flavorings, nicotine, and other additives (5%). The flavorings may be natural, artificial, or organic. Over 80 chemicals such as formaldehyde and metallic nanoparticles have been found in the e-liquid. There are many e-liquid manufacturers, and more than 15,000 flavors.

In the US, under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules, e-liquids must comply with manufacturing standards. Industry standards are published by the American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA). EU standards are in the EU Tobacco Products Directive.

Since their entrance to the market around 2003, e-cigarette use has risen rapidly. In 2011 there were about 7 million adult e-cigarette users globally, rising to 68 million in 2020 compared with 1.1 billion cigarette smokers.

E-cigarette use is highest in China, the US, and Europe, with China having the most e-cigarette users. The rise was thought to be due to targeted marketing, their lower cost compared to tobacco, and belief that e-cigarettes are safer than tobacco.

There are varied reasons for e-cigarette use. Most users are trying to quit smoking, but a large proportion of use is recreational or as a way to get around smoke-free laws. Many people who use e-cigarettes still smoke, raising concern that they may be delaying or deterring quitting. Some people say they want to quit smoking by vaping, but others vape to circumvent smoke-free laws and policies, or to cut back on cigarette smoking. Many people vape because they believe vaping is safer than smoking.

Concerns over avoiding stains on teeth or odor from smoke on clothes in some cases prompted interest in or use of e-cigarettes. Some e-cigarettes appeal considerably to people curious in technology who want to customize their devices. There appears to be a hereditary component to tobacco use, which probably plays a part in transitioning of e-cigarette use from experimentation to routine use.

Many users say they like the choice of flavors and comparatively low price of e-cigarettes compared to cigarettes.

In the context of drugs, the gateway hypothesis is that using less harmful drugs can lead to more harmful ones. There is good evidence that vaping is a "gateway" to smoking as well as an "exit ramp" from smoking. Mentally ill people, who as a group are more susceptible to nicotine addiction, are at particularly high risk of this.

Worldwide, increasing numbers of young people are vaping. With access to e-cigarettes, young people's tobacco use has dropped by about 75%.

Most young e-cigarette users have never smoked, but there is a substantial minority who both vape and smoke. Young people who would not smoke are vaping. Twice as many young people vaped in 2014 than also used traditional cigarettes. Young people who smoke tobacco or marijuana, or who drink alcohol, are much more likely to vape. Among young people who have tried vaping, most used a flavored product the first time.

Most young people are not vaping to help them quit tobacco. Vaping correlates with smoking among young people, even in those who would otherwise be unlikely to smoke. Experimenting with vaping encourages young people to continue smoking. A 2015 study found minors had little resistance to buying e-cigarettes online. Teenagers may not admit using e-cigarettes, but use, for instance, a hookah pen. As a result, self-reporting may be lower in surveys.

The "catalyst model" suggests that vaping may proliferate smoking in minors by sensitizing minors to nicotine with the use of a type of nicotine that is more pleasing and without the negative attributes of regular cigarettes. A 2016 review, based on the catalyst model, "indicate that the perceived health risks, specific product characteristics (such as taste, price, and inconspicuous use), and higher levels of acceptance among peers and others potentially make e-cigarettes initially more attractive to adolescents than tobacco cigarettes. Later, increasing familiarity with nicotine could lead to the reevaluation of both electronic and tobacco cigarettes and subsequently to a potential transition to tobacco smoking

Health effects

The benefits and the health risks of e-cigarettes are uncertain, including their long-term effects. There is tentative evidence they may help people quit smoking. Pods contain different doses of nicotine, and these levels are regulated in some countries. Following the possibility of nicotine addiction from e-cigarette use, there is concern children and young people may start smoking cigarettes. Their part in tobacco harm reduction is unclear, while another review found they appear to have the potential to lower tobacco-related death and disease. Regulated US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) nicotine replacement products may be safer than e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes are generally seen as safer than combusted tobacco products.The risk of early death may be similar to that of smokeless tobacco. The risk of serious adverse events was reported in 2016 to be low. Less serious adverse effects include abdominal pain, headache, blurry vision, throat and mouth irritation, vomiting, nausea, and coughing. Nicotine is harmful. In 2019 and 2020, an outbreak of severe vaping lung illness in the US was strongly linked to vitamin E acetate by the CDC. E-cigarettes produce similarly high levels of particulates in the air as do tobacco-cigarettes. There is "only limited evidence showing adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects in humans", with the authors of a 2020 review calling for more long-term studies on the subject. A 2020 review found e-cigarettes increase the risk of asthma by 40% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by 50%.

Pregnancy

The Royal College of Midwives states, "While vaping devices such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) do contain some toxins, they are at far lower levels than found in tobacco smoke. If a pregnant woman who has been smoking chooses to use an e-cig and it helps her to quit smoking and stay smokefree, she should be supported to do so." Based on the available evidence on e-cigarette safety, there was also "no reason to believe that use of an e-cig has any adverse effect on breastfeeding." The statement went on to say, "vaping should continue, if it is helpful to quitting smoking and staying smokefree". The UK National Health Service says: "If using an e-cigarette helps you to stop smoking, it is much safer for you and your baby than continuing to smoke.".Many women who vape continue to do so during pregnancy because of the perceived safety of e-cigarettes compared to tobacco.


Wednesday, September 8, 2021

Nicotine In Vegetables

Do you not smoke? Do you lead a healthy lifestyle, and even despise people with addictions? In vain! Nicotine will still find its way into your body. It turns out that there are vegetables that are popular, recognized as super useful and loved by millions of people, which, however, contain nicotine. 

Scientists and doctors at the University of Michigan back in 1993 conducted a global study on "Nicotine content in vegetables." I don't know what triggered this unusual work, but it is true - the researchers found that nicotine is present in many plants that humans eat. I will not hide the fact that there are products, such as green peppers, tea or tap water in Taganrog, in which no nicotine could be found. But in trivial potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants (all plants of the Solanaceaeuch family), nicotine was contained in quite measurable quantities.

There is 5 foods that contain ... nicotine! These vegetables can be smoked:

 According to the study, 10 g of eggplant contains 1 μg (micrograms) of nicotine - about the same amount a person gets from three hours of secondhand smoke. Cigarettes usually contain 1 mg (milligram) of nicotine, which means that a person will have to eat 10 kg of eggplant to reach that number. Agree, you need to eat a lot of eggplant to achieve the effect of one cigarette!


Cauliflower (who would have thought) has 3.8 ng / g nicotine in 263.4 g of product. This is the equivalent of being in a room with a smoker for three hours. Moreover, subsequent scientific research has even increased the amount of nicotine in cauliflower - up to 16.8 ng / g.

Potatoes also contain nicotine, and most of all - in the pulp. Potatoes are almost a champion: in 1 kg. there is 15.3 ng / g of nicotine, and a person needs to eat only 65.4 grams to achieve the effect of secondhand smoke.


In the potato peel, meanwhile, there is significantly less nicotine, scientists have found: only 4.8 ng / g of nicotine, that is, a person will have to eat 208 grams of potato peels to get the effect of secondhand smoke of one cigarette.




And here is the real winner of the nicotine competition - green tomatoes. This vegetable has the highest level of nicotine - 42.8 ng / g. Eating only 23.4 grams of tomatoes, you already feel the effect of secondhand smoke.


In 1993, a study showed that ripe red tomatoes contained significantly less nicotine - 4.1 ng / g. per kilogram of tomatoes. The effect of secondhand smoke appears after eating 244 grams of tomatoes.


And finally, fresh tomato puree showed a record amount of the drug - 52 ng / g nicotine. A sip of 19.2 g puree is equal to the passive smoking of one cigarette.

Monday, September 6, 2021

Seven Rules Of A Well-Groomed Woman


The modern world requires efforts from the fair sex, unknown to cave women. Each young lady tries to somehow emphasize her merits and hide flaws from prying eyes. What are the modern rules of a well-groomed woman?

Rule 1: clean hair is the key to success

Dirty hair was held in high esteem only in the 18th century, when towers of hair, feathers and dried butterflies were considered a fashion trend. Such ecosystems lasted for several months and did not require practically any maintenance, except that the dust was blown off them with a fan. Now dandruff, matted curls, stuck together hairs are considered bad manners. If grandmothers tell you that washing your hair every day is bad, and your hair gets fat every morning, then this can hardly be considered a good rule. Also, try not to overdo hairspray, especially with evening hairstyles, otherwise the effect of wet hair will look like a swallow's nest.

Rule 2: don't be a mime
A face is a person's business card, and caring for him takes time, effort and money. First, keep track of the amount of makeup. The evocative blue shadows and red lips at the same time will only frighten the opposite sex and cause bewilderment among the rest of humanity. The tone should also not be very dark, otherwise the difference between the neck and the face will make you a clown (so do not forget to powder your neck when using foundation). Secondly, less facial expressions. The less you wrinkle your forehead when you dye your eyelashes, the better you will look in the future.Try to massage your face to get rid of expression lines. Thirdly, do not forget to regularly cleanse the skin in order to avoid the appearance of all sorts of rashes. By following these rules, you will be able to show off flawless skin and flawless makeup and follow the rules of the modern well-groomed woman.

Rule 3: down with rainbow nail polish
Clean, well-groomed hands will only be a plus for any girl. It's not just about extended nails. They still need to be built up beautifully. Long claws are not in favor with men, and besides, it is simply uncomfortable in real life. Therefore, if you still wash the dishes at least occasionally, then do not be like wild predatory animals and make a beautiful manicure that would not interfere with either your personal life or at work. Remember, rhinestones on the nails will suit only the most daring, and the green color of the nail polish will only suit the youngest. In addition to nail care (it would also be nice to make baths to strengthen the nail plate), do not forget about hand skin care, because everyone is pleased to stroke the delicate hands of a beauty.

Rule 4: get rid of tiger skins in your wardrobe
If you want to reach heights and not just move to the second floor of the food market, but become its owner, then never even in your wildest dreams wear a leopard print! Even with well-groomed hands and feet from the ears, she will make a monster out of you. In addition to it, wear a floral print neatly. Although he has not gone out of fashion for several seasons, everything does not always go smoothly with him in the wardrobe either. For some, such clothes will be very forgiving. Therefore, a flower dress can be worn for going to the store for bread, and a flower dress for a ball. In addition, you should not buy all promotional items - what is at a discount does not mean that it suits you. It's better to have a few really good things than a closet full of things that can't be put on in decent places.

Rule 5: wear heels
Unfortunately, not everyone can lengthen their legs. More precisely, everyone can, but not everyone wants. Therefore, try to wear heels up to at least 5 cm to visually look like Irina Shayk. If you can't boast of straight ankles, then don't focus on them. This does not mean that you should hide your vehicles behind floor-length skirts and wide legs. Choose the optimal length of your clothes and good, comfortable shoes for every day. Do you remember that tiger tights are not a hit of your season? So add there more tights with rhinestones, sequins, lurex, wild colors, stretched knees and holes. Throw it all away, forget it and never remember.

Rule 6: choose the right perfume
The trail of perfume that follows you from home to your workplace is capable of fainting people standing next to you. Perfume is a great thing that can give confidence and attract a man. But if you are a lover of sweet aromas, then try to pour them on yourself as little as possible. Remember that you are living in a community. The rules of a well-groomed woman suggest a light and pleasant aroma emanating from her.

Rule 7: be confident and smile
A beautiful smile can conquer all men and give a good mood to friends and family. However, remember that teeth should shine like diamonds, but be straight and clean. Fresh breath is also an equally important factor.


Sunday, September 5, 2021

Gypsy Woman


 Meet 19-year-old Evka from Slovakia. The chosen one of a young gypsy woman was a 20-year-old guy named Lucas. Network users were surprised by the scale of this event, and fashionistas from all over the world were stunned by the price of a wedding dress: 200 thousand dollars. After the ceremony, a festive banquet awaited the guests, at which the tables were laden with food. It seems that the parents of the young were eager to show off their wealth. What do you say? How do you like such a royal scale?